The mind is an organ that serves as the middle of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals—just a few invertebrates comparable to sponges, jellyfish, grownup sea squirts and starfish should not have a mind, even when diffuse neural tissue is current. It’s situated within the head, often near the first sensory organs for such senses as imaginative and prescient, listening to, stability, style, and odor. The mind is probably the most complicated organ in a vertebrate’s physique. In a typical human, the cerebral cortex (the most important half) is estimated to include 15–33 billion neurons, every related by synapses to a number of thousand different neurons. These neurons talk with each other via lengthy protoplasmic fibers referred to as axons, which carry trains of sign pulses referred to as motion potentials to distant elements of the mind or physique concentrating on particular recipient cells. Physiologically, the perform of the mind is to exert centralized management over the opposite organs of the physique. The mind acts on the remainder of the physique each by producing patterns of muscle exercise and by driving the secretion of chemical compounds referred to as hormones. This centralized management permits speedy and coordinated responses to modifications within the setting. Some primary kinds of responsiveness akin to reflexes could be mediated by the spinal twine or peripheral ganglia, however refined purposeful management of conduct based mostly on complicated sensory enter requires the knowledge integrating capabilities of a centralized mind. From a philosophical perspective, what makes the mind particular compared to different organs is that it types the bodily construction related to the thoughts. As Hippocrates put it: “Males should know that from nothing else however the mind come joys, delights, laughter and sports activities, and sorrows, griefs, despondency, and lamentations. By way of a lot of historical past, the thoughts was considered separate from the mind. Even for present-day neuroscience, the mechanisms by which mind exercise provides rise to consciousness and thought stay very difficult to know: regardless of speedy scientific progress, a lot about how the mind works stays a thriller. The operations of particular person mind cells at the moment are understood in appreciable element, however the best way they cooperate in ensembles of tens of millions has but to be solved. Probably the most promising approaches deal with the mind as a organic pc, very totally different in mechanism from an digital pc, however comparable within the sense that it acquires info from the encompassing world, shops it, and processes it in quite a lot of methods, analogous to the central processing unit (CPU) in a pc. This text compares the properties of brains throughout the whole vary of animal species, with the best consideration to vertebrates. It offers with the human mind insofar because it shares the properties of different brains. The methods during which the human mind differs from different brains are coated within the human mind article. A number of subjects that could be coated listed here are as an alternative coated there as a result of far more could be stated about them in a human context. Crucial is mind illness and the consequences of mind injury, coated within the human mind article as a result of the most typical illnesses of the human mind both don’t present up in different species, or else manifest themselves in several methods.
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The human mind has the identical common construction because the brains of different mammals, however has a extra developed cerebral cortex than some other. Giant animals such …

The mind is an organ that serves as the middle of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals—just a few invertebrates reminiscent of sponges, …

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